Logan County, Colorado
HARRINGTON EMERSON, professor of modern languages in the Nebraska State University, was born in Trenton, N. J., August 2, 1853. He was the eldest son of Edwin Emerson, of New York, eldest son of James Emerson, who came from Great Britain about the year 1808. His mother, Mary L. Ingham, was the youngest daughter of Samuel D. Ingham and was born in Washington, D. C., when her father was Secretary of the Treasury, under Jackson. Edwin Emerson, a graduate of Princeton College and of the Princeton Theological Seminary, settled in Greencastle, Penn., in 1852, as the Pastor of the Presbyterian Church. In 1860 he was called to the chairs of mental and moral philosophy and English literature, in the Troy University, N. Y. His health failed soon after and receiving leave of absence from the trustees he removed with his family to Europe for the better education of his children. The subject of this sketch then nine years old was placed in a Paris day school, which he attended for four years, his vacations being spent in travel. In 1867 he entered the military school of the Moravian Brotherhood, at Neuwied, on the Rhine. This is perhaps the strictest school in Europe. At the end of eighteen months he removed to Dresden and continued his studies under private tutors till the year 1871, when after having spent a year in traveling, visiting Italy and the Levant, he entered the mechanical engineering course of the Polytechnic School in Munich, continuing, however, linguistic studies, completing three full years in the Polytechnic, he devoted the last year of his stay abroad entirely to literary studies, spending six months in Italy and the winter in Greece. On May 30, 1876, he reached the United States and three weeks later was appointed instructor in modern languages in the State University of Nebraska. At the end of the first year he was promoted to the full professorship. He was married in Omaha, Neb., June 24, 1879, to Miss Florence Brooks, of Omaha, only daughter of D. C. Brooks. They have one son, Raffe Floresstan, born November 3, 1880. In the University Prof. Emerson has been prominently identified with the party of progress, who advocate a high standard of scholarship, improved methods of teaching and an unsectarian and civil system of government, as opposed to the conservative party composed of the older professors, who oppose all change and advocate a sectarian and parental system of government.
Harrington cash-claimed a quarter in sections 9 and 10, 8N 49W in 1890.
In 1900 Richmond County, New York, "Edward Emerson", a journalist born March 1865 in Germany, married ten years to Florence March 1866 Michigan, have had five kids, three living. Gwendol Sept 189 New York, and Sidney March 1892 New York. Datus Brooks born July 1836 in New York widowed, is with them.
So Florence must have split with Harrington 1885-1890, and then married his brother.
"Sidney Brooks (born December 20, 1892) was a member of the Order of ‘76. He was the son of German National Socialist agent Colonel Edwin Emerson and used his mother’s maiden name. Sidney Brooks was the head of the research bureau of the International Telephone and Telegraph Company (ITT). He was also Director of the Bureau of Economic Research for the Republican Senatorial and Congressional Committee. From 1917 to 1919 Brooks served in the United States Army. "
On February 22, 1934, the Republican Party merged their Senatorial and Congressional Campaign Committees into a single organization independent of the Republican National Committee.
Senator Daniel Hastings of Delaware and Representative Chester Bolton announced the merger. Just before the merger, the two campaign committees hired Sidney Brooks, the long-time head of research at International Telephone and Telegraph (ITT). ITT was one of many American corporations that went to extraordinary means to continue trading with the Nazis after war broke out.
Shortly after Brooks took charge, he made a frantic visit to New York. On March 4, 1934, he went to Room 830 of the Hotel Edison, a room rented to a Mr. William Goodales of Los Angles. Goodales was in fact William Dudley Pelly. The meeting concluded with an agreement to merge the Order of 76 with the Silver Shirts. Later Brooks would stop at 17 Battery Place, the address of the German Consulate General.
Brooks was a member of the Order of 76, a pro-fascist group. The Order of 76 application required the fingerprints of the proposed member, and certain details of their life. Brooks' application revealed that he was the son of Nazi agent Colonel Edwin Emerson and that he chose to use his mother's maiden name to conceal his father's identity. Emerson was a major financial backer of Furholzer and his paper.
Harrington Emerson (1853-1931) was one of America's pioneers in industrial engineering and management and organizational theory. His major contributions were to install his management methods at many industrial firms and to promote the ideas of scientific management and efficiency to a mass audience. One of the most erudite and cosmopolitan personalities associated with the scientific management movement, Emerson established a modestly successful consulting business as an efficiency engineer, an author of books on industrial efficiency, and a promoter and popularizer of the movement. Nearly two hundred companies adopted various features of the Emerson Efficiency system, which included production routing procedures, standardized working conditions and tasks, time and motion studies, and a bonus plan which raised workers' wages in accordance with greater efficiency and productivity. In conjunction with his consulting work, Harrington Emerson evolved an elaborate philosophy of efficiency and disseminated his ideas in books and periodicals. As a writer and lecturer, he broadened the public understanding of scientific management and defined a larger social role for engineers beyond the solution of technical problems.
Emerson was born on August 2, 1853 in Trenton, New Jersey. The eldest of six children reared by Edwin and Mary Louisa Emerson, he descended from Anglo-Irish political and religious dissenters on his father's side of the family. His mother's forebears were prominent Pennsylvania Quakers, long active in Bucks County society and politics. Emerson's maternal grandfather, Samuel Delucenna Ingham, had served two years as U.S. Secretary of the Treasury in Andrew Jackson's first administration before amassing a fortune as the founder and owner of the Hazleton Coal and Railroad Company. Following Ingham's death in 1860, the Emerson family inherited a substantial trust fund. The inheritance enabled Edwin, a Princeton-educated clergyman and academician, to pursue full-time academic study and to direct the educational development of his children.
Harrington Emerson received a continental European education. From 1862 to 1876 he studied under tutors and attended private schools in England, France, Italy, and Greece. In addition to learning languages and archeology, he attended engineering classes in the Royal Bavarian Polytechnique from 1872 to 1875. Emerson returned to the U.S. in 1876 and acquired a position as Professor of Modern Languages at the University of Nebraska. His secular and progressive educational ideas clashed with the religious fundamentalism of the University regents, and he was dismissed from the faculty in 1882. Emerson embarked upon a career as a frontier banker, land speculator, tax agent and troubleshooter for the Union Pacific and Burlington and Missouri railroads. His work took place during the settlement of Nebraska, Kansas, and Colorado. Emerson established his own private loan company in 1883 and in partnership with his brother Samuel formed a land company which invested in future town sites in western Nebraska. As emigration agent for the Union Pacific Railroad, surveyor with the Lincoln Land Company, and land agent for the Burlington and Missouri Railroad in Keith County, Nebraska, Emerson gained invaluable knowledge of choice lands. The Emersons invested $70,000 in the project before drought and crop failures dropped crop prices and interrupted mortgage payments. As a result, Emerson lost his first fortune.
Undaunted, Emerson joined the Reliance Trust Company of Sioux City, Iowa which underwrote farm mortgages and tax liens on Colorado farm properties. He served as liaison between the company's western offices and eastern financiers who floated the concern. The company failed during the Panic of 1893. During the next two years Emerson divided his time between representing an English investment syndicate in America and campaigning in the presidential election of 1896. Emerson investigated over one hundred mining and manufacturing concerns throughout North America and Mexico in an attempt to obtain English capital for developing American industries. Despite his failure to underwrite the financing of a single large company, his investigations brought him broad knowledge of industrial conditions and created a foundation for his later work as an industrial efficiency consultant. Emerson joined William Jennings Bryan's election campaign for U.S. President. The two had become acquainted during Emerson's years on the University of Nebraska faculty. Both had been active in the Democratic Party and in Nebraska state politics. In 1888, Emerson and Bryan canvassed Nebraska as stump speakers on behalf of the Democratic Party. Although a supporter of Grover Cleveland during the 1880s, Emerson became a silver currency advocate and ardently supported Bryan when the latter declared his candidacy. Emerson organized political rallies, directed campaign activities, and solicited campaign funds from relatives, friends, and business associates.
Bryan's defeat in 1896 dashed Emerson's hopes for obtaining patronage and a fortune from a silver-based monetary system. Shortly after the campaign, Emerson began mechanical engineering work, devoting exclusive attention to the application of electric and diesel power to marine navigation. He obtained a position with the General Electric Storage Battery Company of New York in 1897 to pursue this line of investigation. At the company's request, Emerson moved to Seattle, Washington and experimented with the navigation of electric powered ocean vessels.
Attracted by the lure of the Alaskan Gold Rush in 1897, Emerson and several business associates undertook a variety of speculative projects in the Alaskan Territory. These ventures included operating a shuttle steamer between Seattle and the Alaskan gold fields, managing a postal route between Juneau and Skagway, and seeking investors to lease mining properties in Alaska. One of Emerson's most ambitious projects involved the proposed construction of a trans-Pacific telegraphic cable from Seattle to the Philippines via Alaska. Each of these projects floundered, resulting in financial and legal complications for Emerson and his business partners. Emerson took up industrial consulting work to defray the debts incurred from his Alaskan projects.
After a successful tenure as a general manager of a small Pennsylvania glass factory in 1900, Emerson resolved to take up efficiency engineering as a profession. Through meetings of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, he became personally acquainted with the pioneering work of Frederick W. Taylor, the founder of scientific management, ans assimilated much of the methodology for standardizing work and remunerating workers in accordance with productivity. Emerson's most notable consulting assignment was the reorganization of the machine and locomotive repair shops of the sprawling Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railroad. Three years in duration (1904-1907), this work involved the first successful application of scientific management to a large railroad system. Engineering and railroad periodicals gave much attention to the system of shop betterment which he installed. Emerson also developed and implemented a bonus pay system which was widely accepted in a number of industries. As a result of his successful work for the Atchison, Topeka, Emerson began to attract an industrial clientele. During his tenure as a Standard Practice Engineer for the American Locomotive Company, Emerson also founded the Emerson Company. This company hired out associate consulting engineers to other firms on a contract basis. Emerson associates were entrusted with the tasks of standardizing work procedures and applying the Emerson bonus plan for client companies. Between 1907 and 1910, the Emerson Company achieved modest success. The company consulted over 200 corporations, submitting reports for which they were paid twenty-five million dollars. Emerson efficiency methods were applied to department stores, hospitals, colleges, and municipal governments. Between 1911 and 1920 Emerson's firm averaged annual earnings of over $100,000.00. Emerson occupied himself with soliciting business and managing the financial affairs of the company, leaving the consulting work to his associates. Branch offices were established in New York, Pittsburgh, and Chicago.
Attempting to promote his company and to distinguish his methods from those of Taylor, Emerson published three books: Efficiency as a Basis for Operation and Wages (1909); The Twelve Principles of Efficiency (1912); and Colonel Schoonmaker and the Pittsburgh and Lake Erie Railroad (1913). The 1910 Eastern Freight Case brought much wider public attention to Emerson's ideas than ever before. Emerson served as Louis D. Brandeis's star witness in the appeal of major eastern trunk railroads to the Interstate Commerce Commission for a rate increase. Emerson testified that the railroads wasted one million dollars daily by not applying efficiency methods. His brief against the railroads won wide acclaim and marked the growth in public awareness of scientific management. In the wake of the Freight Case, Emerson became known as the High Priest of Efficiency. He spoke more frequently about his effficiency ideas to businessmen, civil organizations, and management and engineering students. In 1912, Emerson helped to found the New York Efficiency Society which promoted and disseminated the ideals of reform through scientific management. In addition to business success. Emerson emjoyed growing stature in the engineering profession.
He was identified as one of the pioneers of modern management and industrial engineering, along with Taylor, H. L. Gantt, and Frank Gilbreth. Emerson joined these and other progressive engineers in founding the Society of Industrial Engineers in 1917. Emerson also participated in the engineering profession's defense of scientific management against public misconception and antagonism from labor organizations. He testified in 1912 before a U.S. House of Representatives committee investigating the impact of scientific management on labor. He also submitted a statement in 1914 to the United States Commission on Industrial Relations, later undergoing cross-examination as well. Emerson prepared lectures and pamphlets which stressed efficiency and patriotism in production for World War I. In 1919 Emerson reorganized the Emerson Company into the Emerson Engineers and continued the consulting work for American manufacturing firms that his company had done before and during World War I. Disagreements among Emerson and his partners in the Emerson Engineers, however, resulted in his being removed from the firm in 1925. Emerson spent most of his time from 1919 to 1931 on special projects, many of them in foreign countries. The overseas work concerned the development of transportation, industry, and communication. Between 1921 and 1928, he advised government leaders and transportation ministries in China, Japan, Mexico, Peru, Poland, and the Soviet Union. Emerson drafted and submitted plans and proposals for financing these projects at a minimum expense to the host country. Using his contacts with influential industrialists and financiers, he served as a liaison between American companies seeking investment opportunities and those countries lacking engineering and financial resources for industrial development. Through the decade of the 1920s, Emerson publicized the potential for promoting efficiency on a global scale. He was particularly optimistic that the Soviet Union's bureaucratic and centralized state offered a uniquely fertile ground for applying scientific management and efficiency principles in a systematic fashion. Emerson also took part in important projects in the United States during the 1920s. He was one of eighteen prominent engineers chosen by Secretary of Commerce Herbert Hoover in 1921 to serve on a committee investigating the elimination of waste in industry. Emerson's responsibility for this project was to study problems in the railroad and coal industries, but due to project financial problems, his report was not published. Emerson saw himself in this period as an efficiency educator. In 1924, he re-wrote and marketed an earlier version of a correspondence course in human engineering. Under the aegis of the Emerson Institute, Emerson's home study course in personal efficiency had a nationwide subscription of 40,000 in 1925. Despite the fact that the Institute became insolvent in 1928, Emerson planned to have his course translated and marketed in the Soviet Union and Poland. In the final years of his life, Emerson turned his attention to writing his memoirs, overseeing his family's investments in Japanese securities, and considering solutions to unemployment in the initial phases of the 1930s depression. He continued his entrepreneurial pursuits by dabbling in Florida land purchases and by developing plans for a high speed monorail. As an elder statesman of the efficiency movement, he felt troubled by the evidence that his reputation had been overshadowed by that of Taylor.
Up to his death in May, 1931, he documented his contributions to scientific management and industrial engineering in his manuscript autobiography, in essays, and in personal letters.
Emerson was married twice: in the 1870s to Florence Brooks and in 1895 to Mary Crawford Supple. His son Raffe was born in 1880. Emerson and Mary Supple had three daughters: Louise, Isabel, and Margaret.
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